CÓD.A04-S02-08 ONLINE

Exploring different methodological approaches and students' perceptions of learning and learning outcomes in CLIL classrooms

Content and language integrated learning has captured the attention of both teachers and researchers. Recent discussions have maintained that CLIL offers opportunities to improve the process of language learning since CLIL contexts offer more opportunities for language exposure and language use. While research interests have predominantly focused on the comparison between CLIL and EFL students’ competence, there seems to be a need to explore the methodological approaches that best trigger the learning of language and content in CLIL settings. The aim of this paper is to analyse how CLIL lessons using different approaches influence students’ perception of learning as well as learning outcomes. The present study was carried out in two different multilingual classrooms in the Valencian Community. Participants were a total of fifty primary-school students from year six, 25 in a CLIL classroom where the teacher followed a teacher directed teaching approach and 25 students in another classroom where the teacher followed a task-based approach. 20 CLIL sessions of Science were observed, 10 sessions in each multilingual classroom. Data on students’ perceptions on learning were collected by means of students learning diaries and semi-structured interviews. Moreover, to examine students’ learning outcomes, in both approaches, students’ writing were analysed using Jacob’s et al. (1987) taxonomy, which included the following dimensions: content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics.

Findings from the study show that students’ perception of learning is higher in those CLIL sessions where the teacher follows the traditional approach of presentation, practise and production. However, learning outcomes, measured in students’ written production, show that students under the task-based approach outperformed those students following a traditional methodology in content, vocabulary, and textual organization, but not in grammar, spelling and mechanism. In addition, our results show that traditional methodology triggers explicit learning, since students report learning a specific language, while TBLT triggers content learning and implicit language learning.

Our findings suggest some pedagogical implications to be considered in CLIL settings. First, it seems that different methodological approaches trigger different learning outcomes. Since CLIL aims to foster the learning of content and language, there seems to be a need to draw attention to language and content. In this sense combining activities with a focus on explicit and implicit learning may benefit students when they engage in task performance in CLIL contexts. Secondly, teacher training should focus on observing the use of strategies that draw attention to language and content and how to incorporate them in teachers’ practices. Finally, further research is a need to examine the effect of teachers’ strategies on language and content on learning outcomes.

Palabras clave

Communicative language Teaching Content And language Integrated Learning Task- Based language Teaching

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Irene Guzmán Alcón

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Hay 4 comentarios en esta ponencia

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      María Dolores Alonso-Cortés Fradejas

      Comentó el 24/06/2021 a las 11:41:27

      Buenos días, Irene
      Te felicito por tu ponencia y, sobre todo, por el estudio sobre el que esta informa.
      Aunque en el ámbito de la lengua materna, actualmente dirijo una tesis doctoral que tiene como objetivo medir el efecto de una metodología en la producción de textos argumentativos escritos por parte de alumnado de Educación Secundaria.
      A mi juicio, este tipo de investigaciones son muy necesarias. Si realmente queremos generar un impacto en la educación debemos ir más allá del análisis de los productos de los aprendices y su relación con sus conocimientos previos o capacidades para explorar cómo influyen los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje que se desarrollan en el aula y, si es posible, en contextos auténticos. Estos estudios que necesariamente requieren análisis cualitativos son muy laboriosos de realizar y por eso creo que debemos dejar de presentar como una limitación los tamaños de muestra más reducidos: son, más bien, un punto fuerte. La ausencia de un análisis estadístico tampoco es, per se, una limitación.
      Por otra parte, me gustaría hacerte una pregunta: ¿has hecho algún tipo de análisis de la actuación del docente? Si te interesa, junto con la profesora Susana Sánchez, de la Universidad de Cádiz, he elaborado una Guía de Observación de prácticas de escritura y puedo hacértela llegar
      Un saludo cordial,

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      • profile avatar

        Irene Guzmán Alcón

        Comentó el 25/06/2021 a las 09:12:43

        Buenos días Maria Dolores,

        Primero de todo muchas gracias por tu comentario. Estoy totalmente de acuerdo contigo que  si queremos generar un impacto en la educación estos estudios son necesarios. Eso si, como tú muy bien has dicho son  estos estudios son muy laboriosos pero necesarios. 
        Por otra parte, contentado a tu pregunta, no he hecho algún tipo de análisis de la actuación del docente en este estudio. Creo que es algo que debemos tener en cuenta y para futuras investigaciones si que me gustaría tenerlo en cuenta. 
         Estaría encantada de recibir  la Guía de Observación de prácticas de escritura de la profesora Susana Sánchez.
        Te puedo enviar mi correo, para hacérmelo llegar si quieres
        Un saludo cordial,

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      Aitor Garcés-Manzanera

      Comentó el 23/06/2021 a las 12:02:02

      Dear Irene,
      Thanks for your very thorough presentation! Congratulations!
      Your results clearly show an advantage of task-based learning in terms of vocabulary, ideational content, and organization which is somewhat evident given the lack of focus-on-form in TBLT. In this regard, you mention that teachers should place more emphasis on language and content, but how can these strategies be developed, and more importantly, be relayed to teacher students? Are there any pedagogical suggestions that you think would apply more conveniently?
      Best,
      Aitor

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        Irene Guzmán Alcón

        Comentó el 23/06/2021 a las 12:40:00

        Dear Aitor,

        Thank you for your comments.

        I think that a good way of making an emphasis on language and content at the same time is by promoting dynamic and communicative tasks in the classroom and try to encourage speaking time activity in the classroom and transmitting a positive attitude towards the CLIL and TBLT approach to our students.

        Therefore, another pedagogical suggestion that for me would be more teachers' training on CLIL and TBLT. So, if more teachers' training on these issues would be provided, students outcomes would be more effective and would work better in the current education system.

        Best,
        Irene

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